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Showing posts from September, 2022


                        ANIMAL KINGDOM      1. Levels of Organisation All members of animalia are multicellular but all of them do not exhibit the same pattern of organisation of cells.              2. A complete digestive system has two openings, mouth and anus.            ●Platyhelminthes has only a single opening to the outside of the body that serves as both mouth and anus, and is hence called incomplete. 3. Circulatory system may be of two types: Open type in which the blood is pumped out of the heart and the cells and tissues are directly bathed in it and Closed type in which the blood is circulated through a series of vessels of varying diameters (arteries, veins and capillaries). 4. Symmetry   Sponges are mostly asymmetrical, i.e., any plane does not divide them into equal halves. When any plane passing through the central axis of the body divides the organism into two identical halves, it is called radial symmetry. Coelenterates, ctenophores and echinoderms have th

PNEUMONIA| Symptoms of pneumonia|causes of pneumonia|pathogen of pneumonia| common cold

  PNEUMONIA:             • Pathogen à                Ø Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteria                Ø Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.           • Infected organ: Alveoli of lungs.           • Alveoli of lungs get filled with fluid leading to severe problem in respiration. • Symptoms:               Ø fever, chill, cough and headache.               Ø In severe cases lip and finger nails may turn grey to bluish colour. • Source of Infection à             Ø By inhaling the droplet/aerosol à released by an infected person             Ø by using infected utensils. COMMON COLD :             • Causative agent à                             RHINOVIRUS (75%) ;                             CORONA VIRUS (25%)           • Upper Respiratory tract infection à          Ø infects the nose and respiratory passage but not the lungs.  • Symptoms:           Ø usually lasts for 3-7 days           Ø nasal congestion and discharge, sore throat, hoarseness, cough ,headache and tiredness.         • Infectio

MALARIA| Causes and prevention |life cycle of plasmodium | causative agent of malaria| Types of malaria|Symptoms of malaria| Female anopheles

 MALARIA:        • Causative agent à Plasmodium (Protozoa)                 • P.vivex.                 •P.malaria.                • P.falciparum à       • Responsible for malignant malaria       • most serious and can even be fatal.       • Plasmodium enter the human body à as SPOROZOITES form(infectious form) through the bite of female anopheles.       • Plasmodium multiplies in liver cells à then attack the RBCs and resulting the rupture of RBCs .       • Rupture of RBC associated with release of a toxic substance called HEMOZOIN à Responsible for chill, high fever recurring every three to four days.        • Asexual phase à completed in liver cells and RBCs of human.       • Gametocytes of plasmodium à develops in RBCs of human.       • When a anopheles bite the infected person, the parasite enters the mosquito  body where sexual cycle is completed that is fertilization and further development take place in mosquito’s gut.       • In mosquito, parasite multiply and form sporozoit

HEALTH | Epidemic| Pandemic| Sporadic | outbreak |Factor affecting health | why health is important?

  1. HEALTH?           • A state of complete physical, mental       and social well-being.            • Why Health is important for a nation?        Healthy peoples à            More efficient   Increased productivity à   economic prosperity. 2. Health is affected by –             • Genetic disorders              • Infections.             • Life style related diseases