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Showing posts from January, 2023

CANCER: NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASE: | Types of tumors| carcinogens|cancer detection and diagnosis |Treatment of cancer

CANCER: NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASE:         • One of the major cause of death all over the globe.         • Cancer is uncontrol growth of cells, divide continuously and produce masses of cells called TUMOUR.          • When a normal cell comes in contact with other cells it stops division. This  property is called CONTACT INHIBITION.          • Cancerous cell/oncogenic cells lost the property of contact  inhibition that’s why produce tumour. TUMORS ARE OF TWO TYPES à • Benign and Malignant     • BENIGN TUMORS  à remain confined to their original location and do not  spread and cause little damage.     • MALIGNANT TUMORS           à a mass of proliferating cells called neoplastic or tumour cells. These cells grow very rapidly, invading and damaging the surrounding normal tissues.                • Cancerous cells actively divide and grow they also starve the normal cells by competing for vital nutrients.                 METASTASIS:           • Cells sloughed from malignant tumour reach dist


 ALLERGY:       • Allergy is the exaggerated response of the immune system to certain antigens present in the environment       • The substances to which such an immune response is produced are called allergens.       • Common examples of allergens à dust mites, pollens, animal dander, etc        • The antibodies produced to these are of IgE type.        • Reason of allergy is release of histamine and serotonin from mast cells.         • The use of drugs like anti-histamine, adrenalin and steroids quickly reduce the symptoms of allergy.      • Symptoms of allergic reactions include sneezing, watery eyes, running nose and difficulty in breathing.  WHY ALLERGY CASES INCREASED?  Modern-day life style has resulted in lowering of immunity. It is due to protected environment in early days of life. .AUTOIMMUNITY: • In memory-based acquired immunity, when the immune system does not differentiate between self-cells and foreign cells and also attack on selfcells and damage the body. This

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